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11. CONCLUSIONS – RECOMMENDATIONS – FUTURE STRATEGIES AND ACTION PLAN

AUTHORS: CONTRIBUTORS:

H. Dosch, M. H. Van de Voorde

P. Albers, U. Bast, G. Bauer, L. Bertrand, J. Bethke, K. Bethke, W. Bleck, P. Boulanger, J.P. Bourgoin, A. Bravin, A. Buleon, H. Burlet, J. Canel,

A. Cesàro, P. Couvreur, J. Daillant, K. de Kruif, G.J. Declerck, L. Demiddeleer, P. Dillman, J.K.G Dhont, A.M. Donald, J. Doucet, Y. Endoh, J. Eßlinger, B. Fillon, M.E. Fitzpatrick, P. Fratzl, P. Gallezot, J.F. Gérard, G. Gompper, J. D. Grunwaldt, H. Hahn, M.J. Hoffmann, J. Janczak-Rusch, W. Kaysser, J.A. Kilner, K. Kostarelos, G. Kotrotsios, M. Lacroix, J.C. Lehmann, J. Lu, L. Malier, I. Nenner, C. Ngô, J.R. Nicholls, D. Normand, G. Ouvrard,

H.F. Poulsen, A. Ramos, J. Rieger, J. Rödel, W. Rossner, M.L. Saboungi, R. Sammons, A.C. Scheinost, T. Schroeder, P. Schurtenberger, R. Spolenak, J. Stangl, A. Steuwer, A. Stierle, D. Stöver, N.J. Terrill, E. Tournié, A. Trampert, S. Uhlenbruck, P. Vadgama, C. Volkert, P.J. Withers, A. Wokaun,

C. Wyon, E. Zschech

[Affiliations chapter 12]

cists, chemists and biologists who work together and stay in close contact with industrial research labs. Experts in atom-controlled ma- terial synthesis, in the advanced microsopic analysis of the materials and in the modelling of materials have to interact in an intimate way. Modern synthesis, analysis and modelling of materials often require large and expensive facilities; fragmented efforts often lead to costly

11.1. OVERALL CONCLUSIONS:

BARRIERS AND GENERIC CHALLENGES

The future welfare of the European citizen depends intimately on inno- vations in so-called key technologies encompassing information and communication, energy and environment, health and transport. Today, it is common wisdom that these innovations require, in turn, novel,

made-to-measure nanomaterial structures which can: process data at a speed of terabytes per second; safely store the data in the smallest dimensions; assure biocompatible transplants; remove monoxides in modern car catalyzers; efficiently separate protons and electrons in fuel cell technology and electrons and holes in novel organic solar cells; and which can withstand – with a minimum weight – the highest me- chanical and thermal loads. A paradigmatic example is taken from the IT roadmap which aims for smaller and faster material structures and improved data storage – it strives for 10nm2 small structures to store 1 bit (enabling a storage density of 5 Terabit/in2). Europe has a superb track record in the development of novel materials and new material phenomena: high-Tc superconductors, the quantum Hall effect, the giant magnetoresistance effect which revolutionised hard disc data storage, the C60 chemistry, the development of the scanning tunnel- ing microscopy and the miscroscopic investigations of chemical reac- tions at catalytic surfaces which opened the gateway to the molecular understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. These are only a few hero- ic examples of the many recent achievements in materials science which show that Europe’s brains are top class. However, in order to be competitive in the future advancement of nanomaterials science and development of nanotechnology with the US and Japan, Europe needs improved research and funding strategies.

Modern materials science depends on several interdisciplinary elements: the materials range from metals, ceramics and semicon- ductors to polymers, organic and biomaterials which are brought together on the nanoscale to create new functions by solid state physi-

Fig. 11.1.1: Data taken from the IT roadmap.

and ineffective local solutions.

The GENNESYS foresight study has investigated in detail the state of the art, future opportunities and challenges in this super-disciplinary development of nanoscience and nanotechnology. It has put together recommendations as to how to overcome fragmentation of efforts and to develop novel research strategies with the existing European research infrastructure, i.e. with the modern synchrotron radiation and neutron facilities which hold an enormous analytical potential to interrogate nanostructures and nanofunctions and to monitor nano- phenomena under environmentally and industrially relevant condi- tions.

Novel analytical technologies exploiting the unique properties of syn- chrotron radiation and neutrons in order to access nanostructures and nanofunctions in deeply buried material architectures and under rele- vant external conditions, will play a crucial role in providing key struc- tural and dynamical information that will pave the way to innovations in nanoscience and nanostructured materials. This will finally lead to the control of nanoscale architectures, design and application. These analytical technologies which have been developed and are still being developed at synchrotron and neutron centres must be exploited more efficiently in a new European nanoscience action plan. Revolu- tionary new analytical concepts which will be based on accelerator- based x-ray and neutron radiation (i.e. free electron lasers and spalla- tion neutrons) must already be implemented in a sustainable European nanoscience concept.

First year of volume production

Technology generation

(half pitch, 1:1, printed in resist)

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

320

Isolated lines (in resist) [Physical gate, metallised]

Chip frequency

Transistors per chip (HV) (3x for HP; 5 for ASICs)

DRAM memory (bits per chip)

90 nm

53 nm [37 nm]

2.5 GHz

190 M

1.1 G

65 nm

35 nm [25 nm]

4.9 GHz

390 M

2.2 G

45 nm

25 nm [18 nm]

9.5 GHz

770 M

4.3 G

32 nm

25 nm [13 nm]

19 GHz

1.5 B

8.6 G

22 nm

13 nm [9 nm]

36 GHz

3.1 B

34G

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